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Religion is fading from European culture

In some European nations, the number of people considering themselves to be non-religious has increased from around 30% in 1980, to over 90% now.* Although large numbers of Muslims populate the continent, a substantial portion are now only "culturally" Muslim, rather than having a literal interpretation of the Koran. Mainstream Islam has begun a reformation and modernisation in recent years – aided by vast improvements in education, combined with the broad homogenisation of culture resulting from globalisation, the Internet, various international agreements and other factors.

Medical advances are undermining religion as a whole, by greatly diminishing the fear of death, while developments in AI, robotics and biotechnology are beginning to trivialise the miracles on which many ancient religions are based. The increasing presence of androids in society – along with other forms of sentience – is adding a whole new dimension to the way humans view themselves and their place in the Universe. The ability to communicate with certain artifically enhanced animals (such as dolphins, monkeys and domestic pets) is also contributing to this trend.

Spirituality continues to play a role in European cultures – but is now based more on nature and physical reality, rather than myths, dogma or supernatural forces.

The USA still lags far behind Europe in terms of atheistic belief, however. It will be another century before America reaches the same level; even longer for certain parts of Asia. Even then, a small percentage of citizens will continue to worship a God (or Gods), well into the next millenium. These people will tend to be those who reject science and technology, or have purposefully chosen to isolate themselves from the rest of the world.


Click to enlarge.

religion trends future atheist 2100 graph



Hypersonic vactrains are widespread

Much of the world has now established a hypersonic, evacuated tube transport system connecting major population centres.* Its routes extend primarily throughout Russia, Northern Europe, Canada and the US. These trains are more advanced versions of the slower, simpler prototypes first introduced decades previously.*

This form of transport works by combining the principles of maglev trains and pneumatic tubes. The trains, or vactrains as they are called, travel inside a closed tube, levitated and pushed forward by magnetic fields. After passing through an airlock, the train cars enter a complete vacuum inside the tube. With no air friction to slow it down, the vactrain can reach speeds far beyond that of any traditional rail system. The fastest routes can now reach speeds of around 4,000 mph (6,400 km/h)* – around five times the speed of sound – compared to a 300 mph maglev train a century earlier.*



With speed of this magnitude, any city within the network can be reached in just a few hours, even if located on the other side of the planet. A number of new routes are in the planning stages as well, including a system of truly massive transoceanic connections. This is possible thanks in part to the relative cheapness (10% the cost of high-speed rail), as well as its energy efficiency. Since the train cars simply coast for most of the trip after being accelerated, slowing down also allows most of the energy to be regained by the track system. The modular design of tubes enables construction to be automated.

One of the main issues designers had to contend with was the problem of safety. At such high speeds, even the slightest bump in the track or misalignment could end in disaster. In addition, the sheer size of the tube systems means that engineers have to deal with the movements of tectonic plates – a particular problem when crossing fault lines. In order to deal with this and disasters such as earthquakes, an immense system of gyroscopes and adjusters are maintained along the length of each route. These are controlled by an automated system of computers receiving constant streams of weather and seismic data, adjusting and bracing the track in real time. Leaks into the vacuum are managed through a combination of self-healing materials and redundant plating.

The late 21st century is a bleak, fragile time for humanity, with much rebuilding to do. However, the resurgence of international travel (following a collapse in earlier decades) is contributing once more to a homogenization between stable countries, with ease of transport bringing the world closer together. One particular area in which this helps is for rapid movement and resettling of refugees affected by climate-related disasters.


train speeds history




SpaceX's "Starman" has a close encounter with Earth

On 6th February 2018, U.S. aerospace company, SpaceX, conducted the maiden launch of the Falcon Heavy, a partially reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle designed to transport people and cargo beyond Earth orbit.* The rocket was carrying a Tesla Roadster, which belonged to SpaceX founder Elon Musk, as a dummy payload. Inside the electric sports car was a mannequin, nicknamed Starman, who appeared to "drive" the car while wearing a spacesuit.

The Roadster, released upon reaching outer space, had sufficient velocity to escape Earth's gravity. It entered into an elliptical heliocentric orbit that would eventually cross the orbit of Mars, reaching a maximum distance from the Sun at aphelion of 1.66 AU. In 2091, after a period of 73 years, Starman returns to cislunar space and makes a close approach of Earth.* He continues to circle the inner Solar System for millions of years into the future, with a small probability of colliding with Earth (6%) and Venus (2.5%) during the first million years.


tesla starman 2091
Credit: SpaceX




West Antarctica is among the fastest developing regions in the world

As a result of global warming, temperatures at the poles have risen more than anywhere else in the world – meaning that parts of Western Antarctica are now comparable with the climates of Alaska, Iceland and northern Scandinavia. In some areas, melting of surface ice has resulted in conditions appropriate for large-scale human settlement.* The icy continent today would be unrecognisable to observers from the 20th century: its northern peninsula is now home to a multitude of towns and conurbations, with a total population numbering in the millions. Even farming and crop growing is now possible in some of the most northerly areas, using genetic modification techniques.

Rapid immigration from countries all over the world has created a diverse mixture of people and cultures flocking to this new land of opportunity. In a way, the settlement of Antarctica is similar to that of America in the 18th and 19th centuries. The highest density cities are becoming cultural melting pots similar to London and New York, though on a smaller scale.


future antarctic
© Luca Oleastri | Dreamstime.com



Global fertility has stabilised at below 2.0 children per woman

By 2095, the global average number of children per woman has dropped below two, with even Africa now approaching this level after 130 years of declining fertility.* There is now a remarkably similar rate between all regions on Earth – due to a range of factors including better education, improvements in health and living standards, access to contraception and shifting cultural perceptions on the value of children, ideal family size, etc.


future fertility trends 2100 timeline



Many of the world's languages are no longer in use

Increased globalisation has resulted in the number of human languages declining from around 7,000 during the late 20th century, to less than half of that figure now.* Many old sayings, customs and traditions have been abandoned or forgotten as the world becomes an ever smaller and more interconnected place. Changing social and economic conditions have forced many parents to teach their children the lingua franca, rather than obscure local dialects, in order to give them a better future. This is especially true in Africa and Asia.

This broad homogenisation of culture has been further propagated by the stunning advances in technology which have swept the world. Many people in developed countries, for instance, are eschewing their native tongues altogether, relying on brain implants for everyday communications. The young especially are utilising this form of digital telepathy, now sufficiently advanced that verbally speaking has almost become an inconvenience, due to the longer time intervals required in conversations.

Meanwhile, tribes people and isolated communities have lost homelands due to climate change, deforestation and shifting land uses. This forced migration and assimilation into the wider world has caused many ancient and rural languages to fade away. English, Mandarin and Spanish remain the lingua franca of international business, science, technology and aviation.


future languages decline 2100  21st 22nd century timeline
© Franz Pfluegl | Dreamstime.com



Manned exploration of the Saturnian system

The success of the Jupiter missions proved that long range, manned exploration of the solar system was possible. Many further missions are now being conducted, including trips to Saturn. Pulsed fusion drives and other advanced propulsion allows these spacecraft to travel billions of miles in a matter of days or weeks. In addition to the planet itself, landings are taking place on the moons in preparation for later settlement.


future manned exploration of saturn 2100
Credit: NASA



Sea levels are wreaking havoc around the world

Despite efforts to halt climate change, it came too late to save many lowland areas of the world. Sea levels rose nearly two metres by the end of the 21st century, displacing hundreds of millions of people.* The Maldives were especially hard hit, with most of the nation disappearing underwater completely.* Countries around the globe were forced to begin large-scale evacuation and resettlement programmes, while trillions of dollars were spent on coastal defences.


florida sea level rise 2100 future timeline global warming
Florida sea level rise. Credit: NASA



Over 80% of the Amazon rainforest has been lost

Due to the combined impacts of logging, drought, forest fires, desertification, agriculture and industrial expansion, less than one-fifth of the Amazon now remains.* In addition to mass extinctions of flora and fauna, many indigenous peoples' communities have vanished.


amazon deforestation 2100 future timeline
A portion of the Amazon rainforest, 2000-2012. Animation created by Will Fox, using imagery from NASA.



The average employee works less than 20 hours per week

In the early 1800s, most people in America and Europe worked shifts of 70-90 hours per week, or even longer during busy periods.** Conditions were often cramped and dangerous, pay was low (or non-existent in the case of slaves) and workers had little in the way of rights.

Later in the 19th century, a growing labour movement led to improved workplace regulations. A series of laws were introduced to improve safety and to limit the hours worked by employees – particularly women and children – while slavery was abolished throughout much of the world.

Further progress was made in the 20th century with the introduction of minimum wage laws, the emergence of five-day workweeks and continued growth in union membership. In 1900, a typical U.S. citizen worked 57 hours per week and this had fallen to 49 hours by the 1920s. Working hours fell sharply during the Great Depression, especially in manufacturing, but rebounded during World War II.

In the post-war boom years, the average length of workweek in the U.S. continued to fall, but at a slower rate than before, hovering at around 40 hours. There was a faster decline in Western Europe, however, and in the OECD as a whole. On both sides of the Atlantic, union membership declined substantially in the 1970s and 80s, though progress continued to be made in employment law.

In the 21st century, these trends continued. In the first few decades, this occurred alongside further changes in the workforce, with telecommuting and flexible business hours making work in developed nations more dependent on worker preference and efficient productivity.** In addition, this period witnessed the gradual loss of traditional labour as computer intelligence and automation proliferated.* This led to serious disruption as employers attempted to adapt productivity to the growing surplus of workers.

The growth of personal manufacturing in the form of 3D printers and nanofabricators, alongside increasingly common means of local power generation, began to significantly alter the economy itself. As production became more and more decentralised, work became less and less of a requirement for basic living. Spending on necessities like food at home, cars, clothing, household furnishings and utilities – as a share of disposable functional income – had already declined from 55% in 1950, to under 35% by the 2010s.* With such items becoming producible on a personal and community scale, work hours in many places were gradually becoming a matter of choice rather than need.

This revolution in manufacturing, combined with exponential growth of computer intelligence, would eventually change the nature of work itself. With an ever-growing share of the economy based on information technology, the average job was becoming more creative, personal and intellectual. By the latter half of the 21st century, artificial general intelligence had penetrated much of the business world, allowing workers to share tasks with computers able to operate with little or no human intervention.

Finally, a gradual cultural shift – in which more value was placed on free time and creative pursuits rather than work or material gain – began to emerge during the last decades of the century.* This grew largely out of the global response to climate change, but was also a consequence of technological advancement and the mounting costs of unchecked materialism. While by no means a rapid or ubiquitous trend, this also helped to reduce the need for traditional working jobs.*

All of these factors contributed to an ongoing net reduction in global working hours. By the 2040s, the average workweek had fallen below 30 hours. This trend continued, falling below 20 hours during the closing years of the 21st century.*


trends in working hours in oecd countries




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1 British Social Attitudes Survey:
Accessed 6th October 2013.

2 "Swiss company Acabion sees such vacuum tube-based mass transport systems becoming a reality by 2100 and ... envisages a global network that would let users circle the globe in less than two hours and make transcontinental journeys possible in less than the time it currently takes to get across town."
See Around the world in 0.083 days: Acabion's vision for future transport, gizmag:
Accessed 14th February 2013.

3 "...China should target the development of high-speed ground transportation with 600 to 1,000 kilometers per hour which should be in operation between 2020 and 2030."
See Maglev Trains – Future of Transportation, Maglev.net:
Accessed 3rd January 2018.

4 "If ETT does see the light of day it is estimated to travel at a top speed of 4,000 mph. That's more than mach 5! More than only the fastest record-breaking jets! At 4,000 mph, a trip from Washington DC to Beijing would take just two hours."
See From D.C. To Beijing In 2 Hours – Evacuated Tube Transport Could Revolutionize How We Travel, Singularity Hub:
Accessed 14th February 2013.

5 Land_speed_record_for_rail_vehicles – Maglev_trains, Wikipedia:
Accessed 14th February 2013.

6 SpaceX launches Falcon Heavy rocket, Future Timeline Blog:
Accessed 16th February 2018.

7 Elon Musk’s Tesla will have a close encounter with Earth in 2091, SpaceFlight Now:
Accessed 16th February 2018.

8 How to survive the coming century, NewScientist.com:
Accessed 25th May 2009.

9 Total fertility (TFR), World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs:
Accessed 14th September 2014.

10 Dying languages to be preserved in talking dictionaries, The Independent:
Accessed 14th September 2014.

11 All Wet on Sea Level – The Remix, YouTube.com:
Accessed 24th September 2009.

12 Maldives cabinet makes a splash, BBC News:
Accessed 17th October 2009.

13 No rainforest, no monsoon: get ready for a warmer world, New Scientist:
Accessed 28th February 2010.

14 Hours of Work in U.S. History, EH.net:
Accessed 9th February 2014.

15 British society – 1815-1851 > Living and working conditions, BBC:
Accessed 15th October 2013.

16 See 2021.

17 We're Getting Off the Ladder – The Future of Work, Time:
Accessed 15th October 2013.

18 See 2039.

19 Spending on food at home, cars, clothing, household furnishings and housing and utilities, as a share of disposable functional income, 1950-2012, US Bureau of Economic Analysis:
Accessed 15th October 2013.

20 See 2060-2100.

21 Working hours: Get a life, The Economist:
Accessed 15th October 2013.

22 Average annual hours actually worked per worker, OECD:
Accessed 15th October 2013.


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