19th July 2016
Smallest ever hard disk writes information atom by atom
Scientists in the Netherlands, working at the limits of miniaturisation, have used one bit per atom to create 1 kilobyte of data storage.
Every day, modern society creates more than a billion gigabytes of new data. To store all this information, it is increasingly important that each single bit occupies as little space as possible. A team of scientists at the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience at Delft University, Netherlands, managed to bring this reduction to the ultimate limit: they built a memory of 1 kilobyte (8,000 bits), where each bit is represented by the position of one single chlorine atom.
"In theory, this storage density would allow all books ever created by humans to be written on a single post stamp", says lead scientist Sander Otte. They reached a storage density of 500 Terabits per square inch (Tbpsi), 500 times better than the best commercial hard disk currently available. His team reports on this breakthrough in Nature Nanotechnology.
In 1959, physicist Richard Feynman challenged his colleagues to engineer the world at the smallest possible scale. In his famous lecture, There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, he speculated that a platform allowing us to arrange individual atoms, in an exact orderly pattern, would make it possible to store one piece of information per atom. To honour the visionary Feynman, Otte and his team have now coded a section of Feynman's lecture on an area 100 nanometres wide.
STM scan (96 nm wide, 126 nm tall) of the 1 kB memory, written to a section of Feynman's lecture, There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom.
The team used a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), in which a sharp needle probes the atoms of a surface, one by one. Using these probes, scientists not only see the atoms, but can also push them around: "You could compare it to a sliding puzzle", Otte explains. "Every bit consists of two positions on a surface of copper atoms, and one chlorine atom that we can slide back and forth between these two positions. If the chlorine atom is in the top position, there is a hole beneath it – we call this a 1. If the hole is in the top position and the chlorine atom is therefore on the bottom, then the bit is a 0." Because the chlorine atoms are surrounded by other chlorine atoms, except near the holes, they keep each other in place. That is why this method with holes is much more stable than methods with loose atoms and more suitable for data storage.
The researchers from Delft organised their memory in blocks of 8 bytes (64 bits). Each block has a marker, made of the same type of 'holes' as the raster of chlorine atoms. Inspired by the pixelated square barcodes (QR codes) often used to scan tickets for airplanes and concerts, these markers work like miniature QR codes that carry information about the precise location of the block on the copper layer. The code will also indicate if a block has been damaged, for instance due to some local contaminant or an error in the surface. This allows memory to be scaled up easily to very big sizes, even if the copper surface is not entirely perfect.
The new method offers excellent prospects in terms of stability and scalability. Still, this type of memory should not be expected in commercial use anytime soon: "In its current form, the memory can operate only in very clean vacuum conditions and at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), so the actual storage of data on an atomic scale is still some way off," explains Otte. "But through this achievement, we have certainly come a big step closer".
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