Euro enters circulation
euro was established by the provisions in the Maastricht Treaty of 1992.
To participate in the currency, Member States were required to meet
strict criteria, such as a budget deficit of less than 3% of GDP, a
debt ratio of less than 60% of GDP, low inflation, and interest rates
close to the EU average.
was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency
on 1 January 1999, with Euro coins and banknotes entering circulation
on 1st January 2002. It became the second largest reserve currency
and the second most traded currency in the world after the U.S. dollar.
became the sole currency of 17 EU Member States: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. These
countries comprised the "eurozone"; some 330 million people
introduces the iMac G4
iMac G4 was produced by Apple from early 2002 to mid-2004.
It replaced the aging iMac G3. This computer
featured a radical new design, with a 15-inch LCD screen mounted on
an adjustable arm above a hemisphere containing a full-size, tray-loading
optical drive. CPU speeds ranged from 700 Mhz to 1.25 Ghz.
world's first cyborg
2002, cybernetics professor Kevin Warwick at the University of Reading,
UK, achieved a major breakthrough in the field of brain-computer interfaces.
The landmark project consisted of two experiments, both carried out
by Professor Warwick himself.
involved an array of 100 electrodes, implanted into his
arm. These were able to connect directly with his central nervous system
and send an electrical signal outside his body. Using this method,
Professor Warwick successfully manipulated a robotic hand, using nothing
but nerve impulses. Further experiments included long distance control
via the Internet, as well as the control of a powered wheelchair.
stage of the project was direct, artificial connectivity between two
humans. This too was successfully demonstrated. Using the Internet as
the go-between, signals were sent between him and his wife. Although
the effects were only small, it was the first time that nerve signals had
been sent artificially between two humans.* After the
experiment, it was proven that the interfaces left minimal
damage to tissue.
Skoble (CC BY 2.0)
The dwarf planet
Quaoar is discovered
is a binary, trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet. It was discovered
in June 2002 by astronomers at the California Institute of Technology.
It orbits at 43 astronomical units (6.4×109 km; 4.0×109 mi) from the Sun with an orbital period of 286 years. It has a single
tiny moon called Weywot.
deadliest act of terrorism in the history of Indonesia
The Bali bombings occurred on 12th October 2002 in the tourist district
of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. The attack was the deadliest
act of terrorism in the history of Indonesia, killing 202 people, 152
of whom were foreign nationals (including 88 Australians), and 38 Indonesian
citizens. A further 240 people were injured.
The attack involved
the detonation of three bombs – a backpack-mounted device carried by
a suicide bomber; and a large car bomb, both of which were detonated in
or near popular nightclubs in Kuta; and a third much smaller device
detonated outside the U.S. consulate in Denpasar, the latter causing only
of Jemaah Islamiyah, a violent Islamist group, were convicted in relation
to the bombings, including three individuals who were sentenced to death.
Credit: Dtobias (CC-BY-SA-3.0)